In this section, we remember significant achievements and moments from Black and Asian history
The Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 receives Royal Assent. This act amended the rules so people from outside the European Economic Area had to have residential status for eight years before being eligible for naturalisation. Those seeking naturalisation through wedlock had to be married for five years first.
Violence erupts after peaceful protest against fatal shooting of unarmed man. Two police officers in hospital last night after violence involving up to 120 rioters in Brixton, south London. In bursts of aggression, mainly by youths, shop windows were smashed and vehicles vandalised. Hours earlier, a similar number of people had gathered outside Brixton police station in an initially peaceful afternoon protest against the fatal shooting by police of an unarmed man, Derek Bennett.
The Gifford Report** , commissioned in 1986 by the Government to look into patterns of Racisim and Discrimination in Liverpool after the 1985 Toxeth Riots, is published.Lord Gifford states:
" We concluded from the many witnesses, black and white,that there is a wholly unacceptable level of racist languageand racist behaviour by officers, including officers of rank, in the Merseyside Force."
** Gifford T, Brown W and Bundey R (1989) Loosen the shackles: first report of the Liverpool 8 Inquiry into Race Relations in Liverpool. Liverpool: Karia Press.
Train staff at Euston end 'colour bar'. A West Indian, Asquith Xavier(pictured) after being refused a job transfer for a Guard Job at Euston Station, which was incredibly endorsed by his own Union, refused to take no for an answer.He led a high profile campaign to change this and after a Government ordered probe, Euston station overturned a ban on black workers. It led to serious death threats and intimidation against Mr.Xavier.
Black and Asian communities join the world via Live Concerts held in London and New York and other cities across the world to raise funds for the Ethopian famine crisis. This was a first of its kind and caused controversy and awe in equal measure. The event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England, United Kingdom (attended by 72,000 people) and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (attended by about 100,000 people).On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as Australia and Germany. It was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time: an estimated global audience of 1.9 billion, across 150 nations, watched the live broadcast
Birthday of Nadeem Aslam FRSL(born 11 July 1966 in Gujranwala, Pakistan). A a prize-winning British Pakistani novelist. His debut novel, Season of the Rainbirds, won the Betty Trask and the Author's Club First Novel Award. His critically acclaimed second novel Maps for Lost Lovers won Encore Award and Kiriyama Prize; it was shortlisted for IMPAC Dublin Literary Award, among others. Colm Toibin described him as "one of the most exciting and serious British novelists writing now'.
England suffered serious riots across many major cities. They were perceived as race riots between communities, in all cases the main motives for the riots were related to racial tension and city deprivation. The riots were caused by a distrust of the police and authority. The four main riots that occurred were the Brixton riot in London, the Handsworth riots in Birmingham, the Chapeltown riot in Leeds and the Toxteth riots in Liverpool. Riots also breakout in Moss Side, Reading, Wolverhampton, Preston, Hull and Ellesmore Port as diverse communities vent their frustration over Government Policies.
Horrett Campbell, 33 attacks three children and four women with a machete at an infant school teddy bears' picnic. Mr.Campbell who was a paranoid schizophrenic was found guilty of seven counts of attempted murder and sentenced to life imprisonment in December 1996 for the attack at St Luke's infants school, in Blakenhall, Wolverhampton.
London is rocked by Terrorism. The 7 July 2005 London bombings (often referred to as 7/7) were a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks in central London, which targeted civilians using the public transport system during the morning rush hour.
On the morning of Thursday, 7 July 2005, four British Islamist men detonated four bombs—three in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus inTavistock Square. As well as the four bombers, 52 civilians were killed and over 700 more were injured in the attacks, the United Kingdom's worst terrorist incident since the 1988 Lockerbie bombing as well as the country's first ever suicide attack.
The explosions were caused by homemade organic peroxide-based devices packed into backpacks. The bombings were followed two weeks later by a series of attempted attacks which failed to cause injury or damage.
The 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games, which had highlighted the city's multicultural reputation.
The Black & Asian people among the victims were - Anthony Fatayi Williams,Shahara Islam,Neetu Jain,Shyanuja Parathasangary,Sam Ly,Gladys Wundowa,Arthur Fredrick,Ojara Ikeagwu,Atique Sharifi,Ihab Slimane and Christian Small
UK no.1 is Baby Come Back by the Equals for 3 weeks. In 1965, Eddy Grant formed his first band, the Equals - unique in being one of the UK's first multiracial bands to receive any recognition joining the Foundations from 1967. The track actually was a hit in the German charts, and then across Europe before being re-issued here as an A side and going to no.1. It even made it into the US Top 40.
The Famous Reggae Sunsplash returned to the UK after a successful debut at Crystal Palace in 1984(pictured).In 1984 Reggae Sunsplash expanded overseas with a one-day festival staged at the Crystal Palace in London, England, which drew 25,000 and a 1987 performance in Clapham Common Park in London which attracted nearly 300,000 fans.
"The Black Man: A Monthly Magazine of Negro Thought and Opinion." The magazine was edited by Marcus Garvey, founder and president-general of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A.), of London, England, and these issues feature transcripts of speeches that were given by Mr. Garvey at Bethel Church, Halifax, and Menelik Hall, Sydney. These speeches outlined the work that has been completed by the U.N.I.A. It published over 4 Volumes between 1933 and 1938
3 July 2018 - The “appalling treatment” of thousands of Windrush victims shows that the Home Office has become a callous and hostile institution in need of “root and branch reform”, a damning report from the home affairs select committee has found.
The introduction of a barrage of hostile environment policies at the same time as legal aid was removed for immigration cases meant the Windrush generation were unable to get help when they found themselves classified as illegal immigrants, consequently losing their jobs and homes or being denied NHS treatment and unable to travel, the report found.
With thanks to The Guardian for the above information. Photo Yuk Mok/PA
Death of Learie Nicholas Constantine, Baron Constantine, Kt. (21 September 1901 – 1 July 1971) A West Indian cricketer, lawyer and politician who served as Trinidad's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom and became the UK's first black peer. He played 18 Test matches before the Second World War and took the West Indies' first wicket in Test cricket. An advocate against racial discrimination, in later life he was influential in the passing of the Race Relations Act in Britain. He was knighted in 1962 and made a life peer in 1969.
Death of Dadabhai Naoroji "The Grand old Man of India" as he was known and the first minority ethnic MP, elected in 1892. He was elected to represent Finsbury Park on behalf of the Liberal Party. Born in Mumbai and an accomplished professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, he never forgot his roots and campaigned about the terrible conditions in India. He gave his support to the Irish independence movement as well the Pan-African Conference held in London in 1900. In later life he dedicated himself to writing books, such as Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.
Jeremy Williams comes in as a late replacement for Alexander Zolkin and is levelled by Britains Henry Akinwande, who wins the WBO Heavyweight title.The Title had been vacated by Riddick Bowe, a fight which Akinwande was to win via a 3rd round stoppage. Akinwande went on to defend the belt twice, with victories over Russian Alexander Zolkin by TKO and a decision over fellow Briton Scott Welch, who had won the WBO Intercontinental Title with a stoppage over the 46-year-old Joe Bugner.
Dick Turpin out-fights Champion Vince Hawkins in front of 40,000 people at Villa Park, England to become Britains first ever Black Boxing Champion. The fight took place in pouring rain, with both boxers slipping on the drenched canvas. The significance of Turpin simply competing for a British title was made evident by the BBC's decision to cover the fight on radio. The Birmingham Gazette described the event as the "Midlands' biggest boxing attraction for many years", and his achievement was even mentioned in the African-American press.
Essex Cricketer, Nasser Hussain(left in picture) is appointed England Cricket Captain.The first time an Indian born Cricketer is appointed to the Captaincy. See www.ourheritage.tv/halloffame for biography.
A wounded in battle Solider, Corporal Sefanaia Sukanaivalu, crawls forward and rescues two fallen colleagues from enemy fire.On return he was injured by enemy fire but to discourage his brave colleagues from risking their lives to save him, he ends it himself. See ww.ourheritage.tv/timeline for full details.
The merchant vessel Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury Docks carrying 492 workers from the Caribbean. They had come to Britain to assist with post-war reconstruction.The photo shows some of the492 Jamaicans who arrived here from Kingston (Jamaica) and were preparing to disembark from the transport Empire Windrush. From there, they will travel to London under the care of the Colonial Office. They sailed for Britain when they could not find work in their homeland. Fifty two of them will volunteer for the Services, over two hundred have friends who can give them prospects of employment, and most of the remainder are to seek work in Britain after interviews with the Ministry of Labour. Among the party were a number of boxers, with their manager. See www.ourheritage.tv/timeline for more information.
Bombay Dreams opens at the Apollo Victoria, London. A Bollywood-themed musical, with music by A. R. Rahman, lyrics by Don Black and the book by Meera Syal and Thomas Meehan, and produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber. The London production opened in 2002 and ran for two years. The musical also was produced on Broadway in 2004. The story centres around Akaash, a young man from the slums of Bombay who dreams of becoming the next big star in Bollywood.
18 year old school boy Gurdip Singh Chaggar is brutally murdered by racists in Southall which leads to extensive civil action by groups in Southall. The target of their anger is the National Front and the local council and police which they see as indifferent to the growing threat of the Racist Party. To this day, no one has been tried and convicted for this murder.
60,000 Women march in London demanding equal rights for Women including the right to vote.The Indian delegation recruited among Indian women resident in Britain as well as visitors from India, including the Maharani and Gaekwar of Baroda. The Indian representation in the procession was comparatively modest, yet it had an impact insofar as the group received wider comment by officials and in the press.
Learie Constantine, a black Trinidadian professional cricketer, starts a successful landmark case against Imperial Hotels Ltd who had cancelled his hotel reservation. . Mr Constantine sued for breach of contract years before this practice of denying access to goods and services was outlawed by legislation. For full details see www.ourheritage.tv/timeline
Birthday of retired footballer, Darius Martin Clarke Vassell who played for Aston Villa, Manchester City, Ankaragücü and Leicester City. He won 22 England Caps and scored 6 goals. See www.ourheirtage.tv/heroes for Biography
Glen Webbe becomes the first black player to represent the Welsh national rugby union team when he makes his debut versus Tonga. See www.ourheirtage.tv/heroes for Biography